Now that the art nouveau painted decoration has been lost, the essential simplicity of the forms is more obvious. The baseless Ionic order of the piano-nobile windows, with its exaggeratedly slim columns and protruding volutes, reveals the art nouveau predilection for slender, curving forms. This is the only reference in the facade to earlier decorative traditions. The rest of the detailing is reduced to basic geometrical shapes, seen for instance in the plain stone railings of the piano-nobile balconies. Sullam was an imaginative, forwardlooking architect, but he also managed to adapt his design to the scale and character of the older buildings around. The problem of how to inte- grate the abstract forms of contemporary architecture into the highly detailed texture of the urban fabric of Venice is one that has tested the skills of architects in Venice ever since. The Rise of Fascism: First World War to Second World War The two decades between the wars saw further radical social and eco- nomic changes, which were to establish the city’s role in the modern world. The gradual abandonment of large-scale industry in Venice and Murano was accompanied by the development of Marghera on the nearby mainland as a major industrial centre, specializing in oil refining and the manufacture of chemicals.