The first multi-storey car park on the site, erected between 193 1 and 1933 by the Ufficio Tecnico del Comune under Miozzi’s direction, was not only a remarkable technical achievement, but also an accomplished essay in the International Style of the 1930s, with its plain, functional geometrical forms and flush glazing fig. 169. 37 The large-scale industrial and residential development of the nearby mainland necessitated parallel changes in the functions of Venice itself. The expansion of overseas shipping in the lagoon encouraged the city’s marine insurance business, centred in the waterfront palaces at the western end of the Zattere. Tourism, already long-established in Venice, now became the chief source of income of the historic city centre, and ensured the survival of traditional crafts such as glass blowing, lace making and leather working. Meanwhile the city was beginning to establish itself as an international centre of scholarship and the arts.
The 282 THE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF VENICE Biennale, the international art exhibition founded in 1895, not oruy promoted the city as a cultural centre, but also became the excuse for bold architectural experimentation in the little pavilions erected by dif- ferent nations in the gardens at Castello, the home of the Biennale. An important series of technical and craft schools founded in the nineteenth century, together with the Accademia di Belle Arti and the nucleus of the present university at Ca’ Foscari, which dates back to 1829, provided an institutional framework for the development of Venice as an important educational centre. 38 These very fundamental changes in the means of livelihood of the inhabitants of Venice were the background against which the architec- ture of the period evolved.