Not all fibers are thrown or spun into yarns. Chenille “yarns” are actually strips cut from a type of woven fabric called leno. Polymer tape or extruded filmstrips, metallic yarns made from foil and polyester strips, twisted paper, or natural fibers such as rush, sea grass, or cane are made directly into fabric without spinning into yarn. Metallic yarns are made from silver foil encased in polyester film sheeting slit into yarn-like threads. Felted wool bypasses the yarn stage.
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When the yarn is complete, it is wound onto one of the following supporting structures: bobbins, spools, cones, tubes, and cheeses. A skein has no supporting cone.
A textile product can also be fabricated by methods other than weaving. Knitting, crocheting, and chain stitching are all methods of creating a textile by looping and interconnecting one or more yarns. Knitting can be done by hand or by a machine. Knotting and twisting methods include macrame, lace making, netting, and braiding techniques that can be used for decorative detail or for artisan textiles. Tufting and fusion bonding are among the nonwoven methods used to produce rugs and carpet. Fibers that are not made into yarn, whether thin filaments or staple fibers, can be combined using several techniques. Fibers can be held together with heat or adhesive (bonded fibrous bats), chain stitched together with barbed needles (needlepunched), stabilized with heat or chemicals (spunbonded), or mechanically entangled (spunlac-ing). The resulting fiber products are used for carpet cushions and backings, blankets, mattress pads, backings for textile wallcoverings, and backings for vinyl fabric. Coloring
Color can be added at any stage in the process of producing a textile. Wool, for instance, may be dyed in the fiber stage. The resulting colors are lustrous and more permanent, but color choices are limited and custom coloring is difficult. Since synthetic fibers are hydrophobic, it is easier to add color to the polymer solution before producing a fiber. Solution dying is used only for manufactured fibers; but not all synthetics are solution dyed. Solution-dyed fibers result in products that have high color retention, will not sun fade, and can be cleaned with bleach. The dyes are stable and chemical resistant. However, color choices are limited. Solution-dyed colors tend to be muddy and solid colors often have a striped effect. Yarns are often dyed before the textile is constructed. Yarn-dying processes are useful because small batches can be dyed and custom coloring is possible. Piece dying refers to the process of dying an uncolored textile product. After dying, the fabric is exposed to heat, steam, or chemicals, known as mordents, to set the dye.
Colorants are either dyes or pigments, with dyes being water-soluble liquid. If the textile is to be printed, pigments in the form of nonsoluble dye paste are used. Dye paste is applied using various methods that allow successive applications of multiple colors. Printing methods include flat-bed screen printing, using one screen per color, rotary drum printing, and roller printing, using one roller per color. Stalwart roller printing, a method used for carpet, results in muted, fuzzy prints.
Carpets are often printed to add a soil-hiding pattern. Rather than a dye paste, a liquid dye may be used. It can be sprinkled randomly over already colored carpet, injected in liquid form so the dye penetrates deep into the pile, or dye foam may be applied.