10 Living Room Design Ideas On A Budget

The various country pavilions of World Showcase around the lagoon were each to sit on a wedge-shaped piece of property. The U.S. pavilion would be the largest, and it took up two wedges. Moreover, it was located along the North-South line, directly opposite to Future World’s Spaceship Earth, the sphere-shaped emblem of EPCOT. Disney suggested that each country obtain funding for its pavilion from a major industry within the country, e.g., Germany, from its beer industry. Each pavilion could have a shop selling that country’s merchandise, but with a catch: the merchandise, ranging from small souvenirs to larger-ticket luxury goods, had to be selected by Disney’s own shoppers. Each pavilion would also offer some of that country’s characteristic foods prepared solely by Disney in their immense central kitchens.

Design and construction of EPCOT was done on a crash basis in three years, a very rapid timetable for so sprawling a project. For various reasons, including favorable tax benefits and to catch the beginning of the winter tourist season, EPCOT needed to open before September 30, 1982.

We were determined to make that deadline, and to do so integrated our firm with Disney’s in every way possible. For instance, we moved one of our executives from Chicago to an office at Disney in California to work on the pre-construction documents and to critique the designs in terms of the practicality and cost of the construction. For another instance, Disney had envisioned a 195-foot diameter sphere for the Spaceship Earth; we recommended downsizing it to a 165-foot diameter because the larger sphere would have been much more expensive than the smaller one but it would not have provided any additional exhibit or ride space.

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After the critical pre-construction phase, the action moved to the site. The keys to completing any large and complex task on time and on budget are planning and a good computer scheduling system. The construction of EPCOT took place during an era when computers were not as agile as they are today, but we used the best computers we could find. We also required each contractor to do the same, to use “critical path” planning of the sort that we had evolved for the WTC projects; we called ours T-COM. The project involved numerous general contractors, and these had even more numerous subcontractors, sub-subs, and suppliers. We insisted that all the GCs provide us first with milestone schedules and then with detailed fieldwork schedules, and, while in construction, to update the field schedules every sixty days. To provide us with these schedules, they had to obtain precise and regular input from their subs. All the data accumulated through these contractors were fed into the computer, and the results provided to our 200 CM people on-site. Construction took approximately 1,000 days, and each day was jam-packed with tasks to be done. After all, we were creating from scratch a sprawling city to which an average of 30,000 people would come, each day and they would be there to be entertained, fed, and transported.

In addition to building the pavilions, we built the monorail system that ties EPCOT to the other parts of Disney World, such as Magic Kingdom. The monorail was to be made of pre-cast concrete sections; since the only plant that could do the work was in Oregon, and the cross-country transport costs would be too great, so we even built a pre-casting factory on site to make the a variety of structural sections. Eventually, we ended up building parts of Magic Kingdom, too.

During the period when we were completing Disney’s Polynesian Hotel, and when the top Disney construction executives were still engaged in building the Disney World in Japan, the need for additional hotels in Florida came up at a Disney board meeting. They determined

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