Application: Using Information Regarding Interior Finish Materials
The codes affecting painted finishes are the National Fire Protection Association NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, and ASTM E84, Standard Test Methods for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. Most conventional paint systems when applied at a normal film thickness will develop a Class A (0-25) flame-spread rating with 0 smoke development when tested over a noncombustible, previously uncoated substrate, such as cement board.
Normal paint will do nothing to prevent a substrate from burning. Special fire-retardant, or intumescent, coatings can be applied to combustible substrates such as wood to reduce the overall flame spread rating of the system. Flame-retardant paints are specified for public buildings. Intumescent coatings retard flame spread through their intumescent-sublimative-ablative and synergistic flame-suppressing action. On contact with flame or excessive heat, intumescent fire-retardant coatings decompose and puff up, forming a dense foam layer that stops flame spread.
Disposal of paint is governed by law. Latex-based paint will dry up into a solid piece if left open in the air. A hardener can be added to thicken paint. Paint can be spread out to dry on trash paper; when hard, it can be disposed of with other trash. Solvent-based paints must be disposed of according to local or state environmental control agencies’ guidelines.
It is your responsibility to specify the best type of paint and gloss level for the location of the painted surface. An interior space may need to have a scrubbable surface in an entryway or a washable surface in a kitchen. “Scrubbability” is tested with an erosion method. The surface is scrubbed with a stiff brush. A paint may show a burnish mark and still pass a scrubbability test. “Washability” is a test of repelling of releasing stains. It is a nonabrasive test. The American National Standards Institute classifies paints according to properties that include chemical composition, corrosion resistance, hazard potential, and reflectivity. It provides standard test methods and certification to ensure products are manufactured according to specifications.
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The paint color selected by the designer and client may have been from a paint sample supplied by the paint company on paper. It is a good practice to purchase a small amount of paint and apply the paint to a sample of the substrate with the primer that will be used in the application. The sample should be at least 8 inches by 10 inches—larger if possible. Take the paint sample to a place where the lighting will be the same as in the finished installation to check the color. If natural light will be used, the sample will need to be checked under varying daylight conditions.
Make sure excess paint is controlled in your specification. Splatter is the tendency of a roller to throw off droplets of paint during application. Overspray comes from a paint sprayer. For either case, areas adjacent to the surface to be painted should be protected from splatter and overspray. The painting contractor should be made responsible for cleanup of paint on glass surfaces, paint masking tape, and disposal of unused paint. Paint to be used should be stored in an interior location with a temperature of approximately 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Every paint manufacturer produces a paint specification. It would be best to use the specification prepared by the manufacturer for selecting the primer, the thickness of the paint, and the drying time between applications. extremely dependent on the texture and preparation of the substrate surface. Painting materials consist of paint, brushes, rollers, sprayers, disposable paint tarps, and masking tape. Of these, paint is the largest material cost. To reduce ozone depletion, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency closely regulates solvents that contain VOCs. Paints that are more environmentally responsible and contain few or no VOCs can cost 50 percent more than paints with higher levels of VOCs. INSTALLATION METHODS Surface Preparation