Synthetic is a combination of two or more substances to make a product that does not occur in nature.
Thermoforming is a method of producing plastic products that have simple shapes and large radii. Softened sheets of plastic are pressed against a steel mold.
Thermoplastic refers to a type of plastic that will soften when heated and harden again when cooled without damage to the original composition.
Thermosetting plastics are plastics that were once cured or hardened and cannot be softened again.
Vinyl, or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is the third most common plastic, used in building construction for plastic pipes and for interior finishes such as vinyl wallcovering and resilient sheet and tile flooring.
Vinyl composition tile is a type of resilient flooring that is a mix of vinyl, limestone, and colored pigments. Often called VCT, it is more brittle than other resilient flooring products.
Vinyl wallcovering is used in commercial installations for its durability, abrasion resistance, cleanability, and strength. Wallpaper used in residences may be coated with vinyl.
Viscose is a cellulosic fiber, the process of which led to the development of the thin flexible sheeting products cellophane and Saran.
Vulcanization is a process of adding sulfur to crude rubber to make it more resilient and durable, invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839. interchangeably with the term textile. Fabric is defined as a flexible, pliable plane, and thus can refer to a range of products, including paper. In the textile industry, the term fabric is often used to describe a textile that is intended to be used to construct a final product, such as an article of clothing. Cloth is used to refer to textile that is finished for a specific use, such as a table cloth.
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Fibers are classified as either manufactured or natural or natural. Natural fibers are made from plants, the wool of sheep, or the cocoons of silk worms. Leather, from the skin of animals, does not start as a fiber, but the product, a flexible plane of material, is classified as a fabric.
Manufactured synthetic fibers have the same chemical composition as plastics, which are made from from a synthesis of polymer resins. Synthetic manufactured fibers most commonly used in an interior include acrylic, nylon, polyester, and polyolefin. Rayon and Lyocell are tradenames of manufactured fibers derived from cellulose, or wood by-products. Mineral fibers are manufactured from inorganic raw materials and include asbestos, a known carcinogen that is no longer made; metals, wire as a fiber and screen as a fabric (known as hardware cloth in the United States); and lurex, a plastic-coated metal mixed with other fibers. Thin, spun strands of glass are used to create fiberglass, which in textile form is sometimes used for drapery.
Textiles may be used as a wallcovering, either applied directly to the wall or wrapped around a substrate that has sound absorbing properties. Fabric-covered panels may also be used as ceiling tiles or applied to a ceiling. Carpets are textile products that are woven or tufted from yarns. Other textile products used in an interior include rugs, window treatments, and fabrics used to upholster furniture or construct pillows and cushions. Products used in an interior made from textiles are often referred to as soft goods and include household items such as towels, sheets, and tablecloths. Leather is commonly used for upholstery or desk-pads, but can also be used as floor tiles or applied to a wall. Textiles used in decorating can range from shades, awnings, and canopies to fabric roofs and tensile membrane structures. Textiles used in building construction include a breathable vapor barrier made from felted olefin, known by the trade name Tyvek. High-strength fibers have been developed for technical applications in the aerospace industry, as medical fabrics or as construction fabrics.