Creating a sateen fabric by calendaring, using polished and heated rollers to flatten the surface of yarn. A moire pattern, similar to wood grain, can be created by using two calendaring rollers.
Embellishing surfaces with hand or machine embroidery, needlepoint applique, or quilting.
Treatments applied during the finishing stage that improve the function of textile products may include heat-setting synthetics to maintain dimensional stability, preshrinking and applying durable press finishes to cotton, and aligning warp and weft, using a process called tentering. The finishing phase may include applying antimicrobial treatments, optical bright-eners, flame retarders, moth repellents, and/or silicone water repellents. Fluorocarbon compounds such as Scotch Guard or Teflon are applied for soil and stain resistance. The shine of synthetics can be controlled with delusterants.
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Silk in an interior is used for wallcovering, light-duty upholstery, decorative pillows, and lined drapery. Area rugs are sometimes made from silk. Because of its tendency to rot in sunlight, silk is not appropriate for most window treatments, although a lining can help protect the silk from sunlight. Silk is known for its characteristic shiny luster. Silk fibers are made up of the Cotton Cotton is the most widely used natural fiber, and in an interior, it is used for rugs, wallcovering, upholstery, and many household accessories, including table linens, toweling, and bedding. Cotton is often combined with other fibers such as polyester to take advantage of the properties of both fibers. Cotton has a cool, soft, pleasing hand with a luster that varies from matte to slightly lustrous. Cotton fibers are staple length, ranging from less than 1 inch to 2^ inches long. The cross-sectional shape of cotton looks like a kidney bean with a hollow core called a lumen. Cotton fiber bundles called fibrils are tightly knit and twisted at 30-degree spirals, thus deflecting light rays and producing a matte luster. Cotton is fairly strong, with low to moderate elasticity. It is somewhat abrasion resistant. Cotton has poor resiliency and thus will wrinkle. Cotton’s drapability depends on the construction of the final textile. The hollow cross-section makes cotton fibers absorbent and wickable, meaning that moisture moves quickly along the fiber surface and thus evaporates quickly. Cotton is flammable, and therefore is often treated with flame-retardant chemicals. Cotton is somewhat resistant to sunlight. When a flame approaches, cotton will react in the following ways:
Linen is sometimes referred to as flax fiber to distinguish it from linens, referring to household textiles such as sheets, towels, tablecloths, and napkins, all originally made from linen. Linen is used for upholstery, drapery, and household textiles. Linen toweling is very absorbent, but it is too rough for bath towels. Linen has a matte luster, but is more lustrous than cotton. It is cool to the touch and has a smooth appearance.
Linen fibers are long, with highly oriented polymer chains, and an irregular many-sided cross-section with a hollow core. Linen is strong but brittle; it is stiff, does not drape well, and the fibers break easily. Linen’s abrasion resistance is low, but not as low as that of wool and silk. Linen has poor resiliency, so it has a tendency to wrinkle. It has high wickability and is quick-drying. Because it is smooth, linen does not attract lint. Linen is comfortable because it does not conduct heat and there is no static buildup. Linen is characterized by two fiber lengths. Tow fiber is less than 1 foot long, resulting in dull luster and low abrasion resistance. Line fiber is from 1 to 2 feet long and is more durable and smooth. Sunlight does not rot linen, which makes it a good choice for drapery in spite of its stiffness.